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For full information on this style, see The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) or http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html  (click on the tab marked author-date to ensure you are using the right style).

Contents of this guide

References in the text

Tables and figures

Reference list





Unpublished work


Newspaper or magazine


Personal communication

Other reference types

References in the text



Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author’s surname, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if necessary. Full details are given in the reference list (under the heading References). Place the reference at the appropriate point in the text; normally just before punctuation. If the author’s name appears in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it, but the date should follow immediately:

Jones and Green (2012, 50) did useful work on this subject.

Khan’s (2012) research is valuable.

Khan (2012, 89) says, “If the reference is in parentheses, use square brackets for additional parentheses.” 

Within the same parentheses

Separate the references with semicolons. The order of the references is flexible, so this can be alphabetical, chronological, or in order of importance, depending on the preference of the author of the article. If citing more than one work by an author, do not repeat the name:

(Smith 2010, 2012; Khan 2012)

(Smith 2010, 2012, 84; Khan 2012, 54–60)

(Smith 2012a, 84, 95–102; 2012b, 82; Khan 2012, 9)

(Smith 2010, 12; 2012, 84; Khan 2012, 9)

Repeat mentions in the same paragraph

Place the parenthetical citation after the last reference in the paragraph or at the end of the paragraph before the final full stop (period). If the reference is to a different page, however, put the full citation at the first reference and then include only the page number at the next mention:

“Text” (Smith 2012, 54) . . . more text . . . “quoted text” (68).

With a quotation

Citation of the source normally follows a quotation, but may be placed before the quotation to allow the date to appear with the author’s name:

As Smith (2012, 67) points out, “quoted text.”

As Smith points out, “quoted text” (2012, 67).

After a displayed quotation, the source appears in parentheses after the final punctuation:

. . . end of displayed quotation. (Smith 2012, 67)

Page number or other locator

(Smith 2012, 6–10)

(Jones 2012, vol. 2)

One author

Smith (2012) or (Smith 2012)

Two authors

Smith and Jones (2012) or (Smith and Jones 2012)

Three authors

Smith, Jones, and Khan 2012 or (Smith, Jones, and Khan 2012)

Four or more authors

Smith et al. (2012)

(Smith et al. 2012)

If the reference list contains two publications in the same year that would both shorten to the same form (e.g. Smith et al. 2012), cite the surnames of the first author and as many others as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by comma and et al. (NB: you cannot use et al. unless it stands for two authors or more.). If this would result in more than three names having to be used, cite the first author plus a short title:

(Smith et al., “Short Title,” 2012a)

(Smith et al., “Abbreviated Title,” 2012b)

Authors with same surname

(G. Smith 2012)

(F. Smith 2008)

No author

Cite first few words of title (in quotation marks or italics depending on journal style for that type of work), plus the year. Or use newspaper or magazine’s title in italic instead of author’s name:

(China Daily 2013, 12)

Groups of authors that would shorten to the same form

Cite the surnames of the first author and as many others as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by comma and et al.

Organization as author

The organization can be listed under its abbreviation so that the text citation is shorter. If this is the case, alphabetize the reference under the abbreviation rather than the full name:

British Standards Institution (BSI)

In the text:

(BSI 2012)

In the reference list:

BSI (British Standards Institution). 2012. Title

Author with two works in the same year

Put a, b, c after the year 

(Chen 2011a, 2011b)

(Chen 2011a)

(Chen 2011b)

Chen, Z. 2011a. The Economy of China

Chen, Z. 2011b. The Labor of Value

Secondary source

When it is not possible to see an original document, cite the source of your information on it; do not cite the original assuming that the secondary source is correct.

Smith’s diary (quoted in Khan 2012, 193)

Classical work

Classical primary source references are given in the text, not in the reference list.

Personal communication

References to personal communications are cited only in the text:

A. Colleague (personal communication, April 12, 2011)

Unknown date

(Author, n.d.)

(Author, forthcoming)

Two dates

List the original date first, in square brackets, but in parentheses in reference list:

Smith ([1890] 1983) said . . .

Smith, J., ed. (1890) 1983. Collected Style Manuals. Abingdon: Routledge.

Multivolume works:

(Author 1951–1971)


Endnotes should be kept to a minimum. Any references cited in notes should be included in the reference list.

Tables and figures


References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in the reference list. 

Source: Smith (2012, 197).

Reference list

Use the heading References. Do not use a 3-em dash to replace author names.


Alphabetically by last name of author. If no author or editor, order by title. Follow Chicago’s letter-by-letter system for alphabetizing entries. Names with particles (e.g., de, von, van den) should be alphabetized by the individual’s personal preference if known, or traditional usage.

A single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry that begins with the same name. Successive entries by two or more authors when only the first author is the same are alphabetized by co-authors’ last names. If references have the same author(s), editor(s), etc., arrange by year of publication, with undated works at the end.

If the reference list contains two or more items by the same author in the same year, add a, b, etc. and list them alphabetically by title of the work:


Green, M. L. 1998a. Book Title. Location: Press.

Green, M. L. 1998b. Title of Book. Location: Press.

Form of author name

Generally, use the form of the author name as it appears on the title page or head of an article, but this can be made consistent within the reference list if it is known that an author has used two different forms (e.g., Mary Louise Green and M. L. Green), to aid correct identification.


Headline-style capitalization is used. In headline style, the first and last words of title and subtitle and all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) are capitalized. For non-English titles, use sentence-style capitalization.



One author

Smith, John. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Smith, J. 2012. Book Title. Abingdon: Routledge.

Two authors

Smith, John, and Jane Jones. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

(Smith and David 2012, 123)

Smith, J. J., and D. Jones. 2012. On a Book Title: The

Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Three authors

Smith, John, Jane Jones, and Mary Green. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

(Smith, Jones, and Green)

Smith, J., J. Jones, and M. Green. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Four to ten


Give all authors’ names.

(Smith et al. 2012)

Smith, D., J. Jones, M. Green, and L. Khan. 2012. Capital Studies. Abingdon: Routledge.

More than ten authors

List the first seven authors followed by et al.

Organization as


University of Chicago Press. 2012. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

No author

Begin the bibliography entry with the title, and ignore “the”, “a” or “an” for the purposes of alphabetical order.


Chapter in a single-author book:

Green, M. 2012. “Chapter Title.” Chap. 5 in Style Manual, 341–346. Abingdon: Routledge.

Chapter in a multi-author book:

Jones, S. 2012. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by J. Smith, 341–346. Abingdon: Routledge.


Smith, J., ed. 2012. Collected Style Manuals. Abingdon: Routledge.

Smith, J., and J. Jones, eds. 2012. Collected Style Manuals. Abingdon: Routledge.


University of Chicago Press. 2012. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Multivolume work

Green, M. L. 2012. Collected Correspondence. Vol. 2 of The Collected Correspondence of M. L. Green. Abingdon: Routledge, 2000–.

Marx, K. 1994. Capital, vol. 1. [In Chinese.] Vol. 23 of Marx and Engels Collected Works, by K. Marx and F. Engels. Beijing: People Press.

Wang, X. 1997. On Inequality. Vol. 1 of Political Economics in China, edited by E. Cheng. Beijing: Social Sciences Press.

Khan, L. 2009–2012. Collected Works. 2 vols. Abingdon: Routledge.


Smith, John. 2012. Collected Style Manuals. Translated and edited by Jane Jones. Abingdon: Routledge.

Smith, J. 2012. Collected Style Manuals. Translated and edited by J. Jones. Abingdon: Routledge.

Not in English

Translated title in headline-style capitalization:

Piaget, J., and B. Inhelder. 1951. La genèse de l’idée de hasard chez l’enfant [The Origin of the Idea of Chance in the Child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Marx, K. 2009. Zi Ben Lun [Capital]. Beijing: Renming Press.

Marx, K. 2009. Capital. [In Chinese.] Beijing: Renming Press.

Wang, Z. 1997. “On Inequality.” [In Chinese.] Marxist Studies 4 (1): 19–56.

Wang, Z. 1997. “Lun Bu Ping Deng” [On Inequality]. Marxist Studies 4 (1): 19–56.

In the text:

Enfu Cheng (2011) argues in his article that Zhongguo Moshi (Chinese model) is influencing the world.

Enfu Cheng (2011) argues in his article that the Chinese Model (Zhongguo Moshi in Chinese) is influencing the world.


If you used an online version, cite the online version, include the URL or DOI:

Smith, J. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge. doi:xxxxxxxxxxx.

Smith, J. 2012. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge. Accessed March 4, 2013. http://xxxxxxxxx/.

Place of publication

Where two cities are given, include the first one only. If the city could be confused with another, add the abbreviation of the state, province, or country:

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Oxford: Clarendon Press

New York: Macmillan

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press

When the publisher’s name includes the state name, the abbreviation is not needed:

Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press


Omit initial “the”, and “Inc.”, “Ltd”, “Co.”, “Publishing Co.”, etc.




If you used an online version, cite the online version, include a DOI (preferably) or URL.

One author

Smith, John. 2012. “Article Title: The Subtitle.” Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 30–40.

(Smith 2012, 32)

Smith, J. 2012. “Article Title: The Subtitle.” Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 30–40.

Two authors

Smith, John, and Lisa Khan. 2012. “Article Title: The Subtitle.” Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 200–210.

Smith, J. J., and L. M. Khan. 2012. “Article Title: The Subtitle.” Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 200–210.

Three authors

Smith, John, Jane Jones, and Mary Green. 2012. “Article Title: The Subtitle.” Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 33–39. 

Smith, J. J., J. P. Jones, and M. G. Green. 2012. “Article Title: The Subtitle.” Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 33–39. 

Four to ten authors

Give all authors’ names.

More than ten authors

List the first seven authors followed by et al.


Lisa Khan. 2012. “Article Title in English.” [In Hindi.] Journal Title in Full 10 (3): 10–29.

Lisa K. 2012. “Article Title in English.” [In Hindi.] Journal Title in Full, no. 3 (September): 125–129.

Not in English

Capitalize sentence-style, but according to the conventions of the relevant language.

Other article types

Smith, J. 2012. “Title of Book Review.” Review of Book Title, by Lisa Khan. Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 33–39. 

Smith, J. 2012. Review of Book Title by Lisa Khan. Journal Title in Full 10 (1): 33–39.

Issue numbers

The issue number can be omitted if the journal is

paginated consecutively through the volume (or if month or season is included), but it is not incorrect to include it. When volume and issue number alone are used, the issue number is within parentheses. If only an issue number is used, it is not within parentheses:

Journal Title, no. 25: 63–69.

If using month, abbreviate as Jan., Feb., etc. If using season, spell out in full.




Individual contributions to conference proceedings are treated like chapters in multi-author books. If published in a journal, treat as an article.


Smith, J. 2012. “Title of Paper.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of XXXX, Oxford, November 21–24.


Smith, J. 2008. “Title of Thesis.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.




Book or journal article

Use Forthcoming instead of the date. If an article is not yet accepted, treat as a thesis or working paper.

(Smith, forthcoming)

Smith, J. Forthcoming. “Title of Thesis.” Title of Journal.

(Smith, n.d.)

Smith, J. n.d. “Title of Thesis.” Oxford Library. Accessed June 3, 2010. http://www.ol.org/library/strategy.html.

Working Paper

(Ferber 1971)

Ferber, R. 1971. “Family Decision-Making.” Faculty working paper, no. 35, College of Commerce and Business Administration, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.




in notes:

1. See, http//www. . . .


Reference depending on the type of document. Access dates are not required unless no date of publication or revision can be found. If citing an undated online document, give an access date:

Oxford Library. 2012. “Library Strategy.” Oxford Library. Accessed June 3, 2018. http://www.ol.org/library/strategy.html.

Electronic mailing list

In text or in notes (name of list, date of posting, URL).


In text or in notes (name of list, date of posting, URL)


Include date that material was accessed if no original date can be determined. Include information about original performance or source, e.g. of a speech or performance. Include indication of source type.

Newspaper or magazine

Newspapers and magazines are cited in the text, and no entry is needed in the bibliography:

... as noted in a Guardian article on February 27, 2012 ...

But if a bibliography entry should be needed, the name of the newspaper may stand in place of unknown author.

“quotation from newspaper” (Sunday Times 2012).

 (Sunday Times 2012) in the text

Sunday Times. 2012. “On Capital.” Sunday Times, March 3.


Treat pamphlets, reports, brochures and freestanding publications such as exhibition catalogues as books. Give sufficient information to identify the document.

Personal communication


Letter, telephone conversation, or email

Place references to personal communications such as letters and conversations within the running text, not as formal end references:

… as mentioned in a letter to me from Joe Grant, March 4, 2003 …

Letters in published collections are cited by date of the collection, with individual correspondence dates given in the text:

In a letter to Mary Louise Green from Cambridge, June 24, 2010 (Green 2012, 34), …

Other reference types



Green, Ann. 2000. Patent description. US Patent 12345, filed March 23.

Audio and visual media

Bernstein, L., dir. Symphony no. 5, by D. Shostakovich. New York Philharmonic. CBS IM 35854.

Auden, W. H. Poems. Read by the author. Spoken Arts 7137. Compact disc.

Cleese, J., T. Gilliam, Eric Idle, T. Jones, and M. Palin. 2001. “Commentaries.” Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by T. Gilliam and T. Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.


Name of Database (details; accessed Month Day, Year). http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx/.



Wang, Guang-Yan, Zhao-Ming Zhu, Shan Cui, and Jin-Hui Wang. 2017. “Data from: Glucocorticoid Induces Incoordination between Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurons in the Amygdala” (dataset). Dryad Digital Repository. Accessed December 22, 2017. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.k9q7h.

Wang, G.-Y., Z.-M. Zhu, S. Cui, and J.-H. Wang. 2017. “Data from: Glucocorticoid Induces Incoordination between Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurons in the Amygdala” (dataset). Dryad Digital Repository. Accessed December 22, 2017. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.k9q7h.